Assignment: Public Health Programs

Assignment: Public Health Programs

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Question 1

Which of the following is not usually an aim of epidemiology?

To describe
the health status of the population

To fund new public health programs

To explain
the etiology of disease

To predict
the occurrence of disease

To control
the distribution of disease

Question 2

Which of the following activities characterizes an epidemiologic approach (as opposed to a clinical approach)?

Description of a single individual’s symptoms

Surveillance of a population

Treatment of a patient with diagnosed illness

A and C

Question 3

In the Yearly Mortality Bill for 1632, consumption referred to:

dysentery

tuberculosis

smallpox

edema

Question 4

Which of the following activities characterizes a clinical approach (as opposed to an epidemiologic approach)?

Description of specific signs and symptoms in a patient

Description of seasonal trends in disease occurrence

Examination of disease occurrence among population groups

Demonstration of geographic variations in disease frequency

Question 5

Cyclic variations in the occurrence of pneumonia and influenza mortality may reflect:

seasonal variations in cases of influenza.

the fact that influenza is a disappearing disorder.

long-term changes in mortality trends.

both A and B

Question 6

The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) is responsible for (give the best answer):

tracking down unusual disease outbreaks in the United States and foreign countries.

collecting routine epidemiologic data for local health departments.

printing epidemiologic reports for members of the community.

reporting suspicious bioterrorism agents to governmental agencies

Question 7

John Snow, author of Snow on Cholera:

was the father of modern biostatistics.

established postulates for transmission of infectious disease.

was an early epidemiologist who used natural experiments.

argued that the environment was associated with diseases such as malaria.

Question 8

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by pasteurization of milk

Primary Prevention Active

Primary Prevention Passive

Secondary Prevention

Tertiary Prevention

Question 9

Using epidemiology for operational research involves:

study of community health services

study of risks to the individual

study of disease syndromes

study of disease symptoms

Question 10

Increases in lung cancer mortality, especially among women, illustrate which of the following trends in disease occurrence?

A residual disorder

A new epidemic disorder

A persistent disorder

A disappearing disorder

Question 11

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by screening for breast cancer

Primary Prevention Active

Primary Prevention Passive

Secondary Prevention

Tertiary Prevention

Question 12

In 1900, the death rate per 100,000 members of the population for influenza and pneumonia (I & P) was 202.2; it was 22.4 in 2003. How much did the death rate due to I & P decline?

100%

1000%

90%

9000%
Question 13

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by nutritional counseling for pregnant women

Primary Prevention Active

Primary Prevention Passive

Secondary Prevention

Tertiary Prevention

Question 14

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by immunization against rubella

Primary Prevention Active

Primary Prevention Passive

Secondary Prevention

Tertiary Prevention

Question 15

The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by:

the mortality rate from that disease in the 0-4 age group.

a spot map that records all cases of the disease in the past year.

the period prevalence for that disease during the past year.

the incidence rate (cumulative incidence) for that disease in a given period of time.

Question 16

Beach City has a rising population of 500,000 robust, fertile males and 450,000 robust, fertile females. If there were 4,000 live births, 3 fetal deaths, and 40 maternal deaths, what is the crude birth rate?

4,000/500,000 × 1,000

4,000/450,000 × 1,000

4,000/950,000 × 1,000

4,003/950,000 × 1,000

3,997/950,000 × 1,000

Question 17

An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:
Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month

12,000

Roller-skating injuries in Metroville

600

Total number of residents injured from roller-skating

1,800

Total number of deaths from roller-skating

90

Total number of deaths from all causes

900

The crude death rate for all causes was:

90/600 × 100,000

900/100,000 × 100,000

90/1,800 × 100,000

90/900 × 100,000

Question 18

Determining workload and planning the scope of facilities and manpower needs, particularly for chronic disease. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

This is a use primarily for incidence data.

This is a use primarily for prevalence data.

This application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

This is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data.

Question 19

An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:
Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month

12,000

Roller-skating injuries in Metroville

600

Total number of residents injured from roller-skating

1,800

Total number of deaths from roller-skating

90

Total number of deaths from all causes

900

The proportional mortality ratio (%) due to roller-skating was:

90/600 × 100

90/100,000 × 100

90/1,800 × 100

90/900 × 100

Question 20

The fundamental tool for etiologic studies of both acute and chronic diseases. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

This is a use primarily for incidence data.

This is a use primarily for prevalence data.

This application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

This is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data

Question 21

The incidence of a disease is five times greater in men than in women, but the prevalence shows no sex difference. The most likely explanation is that:

the mortality rate is greater in women.

the case fatality rate is greater in women.

the duration of the disease is greater in women.

women receive less adequate medical care for the disease

Question 22

To provide a direct estimate of the risk of developing a disease. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

This is a use primarily for incidence data.

This is a use primarily for prevalence data.

This application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

This is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data.

Question 23

A null hypothesis is most similar to which of the following?

Positive declaration

Negative declaration

Implicit question

Explicit question

Question 24

Age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates by sex in the United States generally show the following sex differences:

Rates for males are higher than rates for females from birth to age 85 and older.

Rates for females are higher than rates for males from birth to age 85 and older.

Rates for males are higher than rates for females from age 6 to age 85 and older.

Rates for males are equal to rates for females during the first 5 years of life.

Question 25

The use of GIS may be thought of as following the heritage of:

Hippocrates

Graunt

Snow

Koch

Semmelweis

Question 26

Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the breeder hypothesis for schizophrenia?

The conditions of life in lower-class society favor its development.

The conditions of life in upper-class society favor its development.

The illness leads to the clustering of psychosis in the impoverished areas of a city.

The illness is associated with increases in creative talents, which contribute to wealth-enhancing achievements.

Question 27

Lung cancer mortality among women is increasing faster than among men. What factor(s) would most likely account for this increased cancer rate?

Younger women are smoking more.

Older women are smoking more.

Women are smoking less.

Men are smoking more

Question 28

According to classic studies, age-standardized morbidity rates in the United States for acute conditions, chronic conditions, and disability due to acute conditions show the following sex differences:

Rates for males are higher than rates for females.

Rates for females are higher than rates for males.

Rates for males are equal to the rates for females.

Females have higher rates of hearing impairment than males.

Question 29

Studies of nativity and migration have reported that:

admission rates of foreign-born persons to mental hospitals were lower than for native-born persons

diseases found in less developed regions are no longer a problem in the United States

immunization programs in developing countries have been highly successful

some migrants have inadequate immunization status with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases

Question 30

Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the downward-drift hypothesis for schizophrenia?

The conditions of life in lower-class society favor its development.

The conditions of life in upper-class society favor its development.

The illness leads to the clustering of psychosis in the impoverished areas of a city.

The illness is associated with increases in creative talents, which contribute to wealth-enhancing achievements.

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